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Taxon: Hordeum vulgare L.

Genus: Hordeum
Subgenus: Hordeum
Section: Hordeum
Family: Poaceae (alt.Gramineae)
Subfamily: Pooideae
Tribe: Triticeae
Nomen number: 317403
Place of publication: Sp. pl. 1:84. 1753
Link to protologue:
Typification: View in Linnean Typification Project
Name Verified on: 29-May-1992 by ARS Systematic Botanists.
Accessions: 15029 (14269 active, 9085 available) in National Plant Germplasm System (Map)

Autonyms (not in current use), synonyms and invalid designations:

(≡ homotypic synonym, = heterotypic synonym, - autonym, I invalid designation)

Common names:

Economic Importance:

  • Animal food: fodder (fide CultTropS)
  • Environmental:
  • Medicines:
  • Vertebrate poisons: mammals (to livestock when infected with certain fungi, fide Kingsbury; Cooper & Johnson ed2)

Distributional Range:


    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Egypt (n.), Libya (n.e.)

    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan
    • CHINA: China [Sichuan (w.), Xizang]
    • EASTERN ASIA: Taiwan
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Egypt, [Sinai] Iran, Iraq, Israel, [Ammiad] Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey

    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: India (n.w.), Pakistan

    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Greece [Crete]


    • EAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Kenya, Tanzania
    • MACARONESIA: Portugal, [Azores, Madeira Islands] Spain [Canary Islands]
    • NORTHEAST TROPICAL AFRICA: Eritrea, Ethiopia
    • NORTHERN AFRICA: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia
    • SOUTH TROPICAL AFRICA: Zambia, Zimbabwe
    • SOUTHERN AFRICA: South Africa
    • WEST TROPICAL AFRICA: Mauritania, Nigeria (n.)
    • WESTERN INDIAN OCEAN: Madagascar

    • ARABIAN PENINSULA: Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
    • CAUCASUS: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russian Federation-Ciscaucasia [Ciscaucasia]
    • CHINA: China
    • EASTERN ASIA: Japan
    • MIDDLE ASIA: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
    • MONGOLIA: Mongolia
    • RUSSIAN FAR EAST: Russian Federation-Far East [Far East]
    • SIBERIA: Russian Federation-Eastern Siberia, [Eastern Siberia] Russian Federation-Western Siberia [Western Siberia]
    • WESTERN ASIA: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, [Ammiad] Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey

    • INDIAN SUBCONTINENT: Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan
    • INDO-CHINA: Myanmar (c.), Thailand
    • MALESIA: Indonesia [Java (e.)]

    • EAST EUROPE: Moldova, Russian Federation-European part, [European part] Ukraine
    • MIDDLE EUROPE: Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, Switzerland
    • NORTHERN EUROPE: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
    • SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE: Albania, Croatia, Italy (incl. Sardinia), Romania, Serbia, Slovenia
    • SOUTHWESTERN EUROPE: France (incl. Corsica), Portugal, Spain (incl. Baleares)

    Northern America
    • Canada, Mexico, United States

    Southern America
    • BRAZIL: Brazil
    • MESOAMERICA: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
    • SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay
    • WESTERN SOUTH AMERICA: Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru



    • EASTERN ASIA: Korea

    • AUSTRALIA: Australia
    • NEW ZEALAND: New Zealand


  1. Afonin, A. N., S. L. Greene, N. I. Dzyubenko, & A. N. Frolov, eds. Interactive agricultural ecological atlas of Russia and neighboring countries. Economic plants and their diseases, pests and weeds (on-line resource). Note: http://www.agroatlas.ru/en/content/cultural/Hordeum_vulgare_K/
  2. Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin). 2009 Note: based on Alden, B. & S. Ryman. 2005-: SKUD (Swedish Utility and Cultivated Plants Database)\; http://www.skud.info
  3. Allan, H. H. B. et al. Flora of New Zealand. 1961- URL: http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/index.aspx
  4. Botanical Society of the British Isles. BSBI taxon database (on-line resource). URL: http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/BSBI/taxonsearch.php
  5. Bothmer, R. von & N. Jacobsen. 1985. Origin, taxonomy, and related species. In D. C. Rasmusson, ed., Barley. Agronomy 26:29.
  6. Cooper, M. R. & A. W. Johnson. Poisonous plants and fungi in Britain: animal and human poisoning. 1998 Note: poisonous
  7. Cronquist, A. et al. Intermountain flora. 1972-
  8. Davis, P. H., ed. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. 1965-1988
  9. Duke, J. A. et al. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs. 2002
  10. Euro+Med Editorial Committee. Euro+Med Plantbase: the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (on-line resource). URL: http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2010. Ecocrop (on-line resource). Note: http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropListDetails?code=&relation=beginsWith&name=Hordeum+vulgare&quantity=1
  12. George, A. S., ed. Flora of Australia. 1980-
  13. Gibbs-Russell, G. E. et al. Grasses of southern Africa. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa vol. 58. 1990 Note: mentions
  14. Grierson, A. J. C. & D. J. Long. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim. 1984-
  15. Grubben, G. J. H. & Soetjipto Partohardjono, eds. 1996. Cereals. Plant Resources of South-East Asia (PROSEA). 1989- 10:99. URL: http://proseanet.org
  16. Hedberg, I. & S. Edwards. Flora of Ethiopia. 1989- (and Eritrea. 2000)
  17. International Seed Testing Association. A Multilingual Glossary of Common Plant-Names 1. Field crops, grasses and vegetables, ed. 2. 1982
  18. Kingsbury, J. M. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada. 1964 Note: poisonous
  19. Kunkel, G. Plants for human consumption. 1984
  20. Lee, Y. N. Flora of Korea. 1997
  21. McGuffin, M., J. T. Kartesz, A. Y. Leung, & A. O. Tucker. Herbs of commerce, ed. 2. 2000 Note: American Herbal Products Association, Silver Spring, MD
  22. Mun-Chan, B. et al. 1986. A checklist of the Korean cultivated plants. Kulturpflanze 34:102.
  23. Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource). URL: http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Frontpage.html
  24. Rechinger, K. H., ed. Flora iranica. 1963- Note: treats under H. spontaneum K. Koch
  25. Rehm, S. & G. Espig. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics. 1991
  26. Soreng, R. J. et al. 2003. Catalogue of New World grasses (Poaceae): IV. Subfamily Pooideae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 48:401.
  27. Townsend, C. C. & E. Guest. Flora of Iraq. 1966- Note: treats under H. spontaneum K. Koch
  28. Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. Flora europaea. 1964-1980
  29. Tzvelev, N. N. Zlaki SSSR. 1976 Note: treats under H. spontaneum K. Koch
  30. University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. UC SAREP on-line cover crop database (on-line resource). URL: http://www.sarep.ucdavis.edu/ccrop/
  31. Walker, E. Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu Islands. 1976
  32. Wood, J. R. I. A handbook of the flora of Yemen. 1997
  33. Wu Zheng-yi & P. H. Raven et al., eds. Flora of China (English edition). 1994- URL: http://www.efloras.org/browse.aspx?flora_id=2
  34. PROTABASE, the information base of PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) (on-line resource). URL: http://www.prota4u.info/

Check other web resources for Hordeum vulgare L. :

Cite as: USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Plant Germplasm System. 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy).
National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: http://wgb.cimmyt.org/gringlobal/taxonomydetail.aspx?id=317403. Accessed 30 September 2020.