Descriptor: Flour End Use Quality, Description (FLOUR_USE_DESCRIPTION)

Based on grain hardness, grain color, dough mixing properties, and gluten strength and extensibility requirements achieved by CIMMYT germplasm under Mexican (Cd Obregon Sonora, Northwest Mexico) growing conditions with experimental yield level between 7-9 ton/ha. Quality types marked as “Household (or utility) wheat” have tenacious gluten character, which is generally undesirable for most of the end-use types requiring a minimum of processing and end product quality attributes. This wheat is used mainly for home consumption, as whole meal flour or refined flour, used to prepare dense-leavened and flat breads or traditional dishes. Main quality attributes: taste, aroma.
Wheat Germplasm Subsets-Quality
Data Type:
Alpha/numeric descriptor
Maximum Length:
Responsible Site:
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT,INT.)

Distinct Values for Flour End Use Quality, Description (FLOUR_USE_DESCRIPTION)

ValueNumber of Accessions
Biscuits, Cakes and Steamed Breads10
Dense and Flat Breads, and Tortillas2
Dense and Household Breads and Tortillas1
Dense and Pan Breads, and Tortillas1
Dense Breads and Tortillas600
Dense, Flat and Leavened Breads5
Dense, Flat and Leavened Breads and Dry Noodles13
Dense, Flat and Leavened Breads, Dry Noodles and Tortillas158
Dense, Flat and Steamed Breads and Tortillas21
Flat and Household Breads and Noodles1
Flat and Leavened Breads and Dry Noodles1117
Flat and Steamed Breads599
Flat, Household and Leavened Breads and Dry Noodles3
Flat, Household and Steamed Breads26
Flat, Leavened and Pan Breads and Dry Noodles148
Flat, Pan and Steamed Breads4
General Purpose1
Household and Pan Breads16
Household Breads1015
Household Breads / Pan Breads1
Leavened and Household Breads7
Leavened and Pan Breads3
Pan and Household Breads29
Pan and Steamed Breads1
Pan Breads1603
Steamed Breads and Noodles37

CIMMYT Germplasm Policy (excerpts)

CIMMYT holds and manages its germplasm as an international public good and is committed to its widespread and facilitated diffusion and use to achieve the maximum possible access, scale, scope of impact, and sharing of benefits for the poor, especially maize and wheat farmers and consumers in developing countries. To safeguard its international public goods character, and by legal obligation with FAO and the Governing Body of the International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), CIMMYT germplasm for use in food and agriculture is transferred using the Standard Materials Transfer Agreement (SMTA) of the ITPGRFA or equivalent Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) in the case of species that are not listed in the Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA.

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

The CIMMYT germplasm research for development focus is on (i) conservation and the effective use of genetic diversity and (ii) the further development and deployment of CIMMYT germplasm for the benefit of improved and more sustainable food and nutrition security, poverty reduction, and environmental sustainability.

CIMMYT strives to make CIMMYT held germplasm, as well as the data and other outputs resulting from its germplasm research and development activities, openly available and accessible for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture, in accordance with the ITPGRFA, the CGIAR Intellectual Assets Principles, the CGIAR Open Access and Data Management Policy and CIMMYT's Intellectual Assets Policy. Germplasm availability is made public through the web, field days etc. and access is free of charge or at minimal cost. CIMMYT may apply additional conditions to the transfer of germplasm under development from its breeding and research programs in support of accelerated use, data sharing, and impact assessment.

CIMMYT acquires and distributes all seed samples in accordance with relevant international and national regulations, such as phytosanitary/quarantine laws, ITPGRFA or CBD, and national laws for genetic resources access, transgenic status, and other considerations. Germplasm imported, exported, or acquired from quarantined regions within the same country must pass through the applicable quarantine processes implemented by an accredited CIMMYT Seed Health Unit or the importing or exporting countries' dedicated authorities, as well as meeting all necessary regulatory requirements, before acceptance and use by CIMMYT for conservation, breeding, research, and/or dissemination to third parties.

CIMMYT makes no warranties, express or implied, regarding the quality, viability or purity (genetic or mechanical), safety of and/or use of CIMMYT-held germplasm including any warranty of merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose, including without limitation, production, breeding, crossing, testing, commercialization, or non-infringement of third-party intellectual property.