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Taxonomic Information on Cultivated Plants in GRIN-Global




Geographical Distribution

Currently, 498,494 distribution records exist in GRIN-Global for the 53,499 taxa for which distributional data are provided. Each record is a linkage between a continent, country, or state occurrence and an accepted taxon name. Country designations follow standards of the U.S. Government as implemented in GRIN-Global. GRIN-Global distribution records are grouped into areas and regions in accordance with the standard publication World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions (Brummitt, 2001), which divides the terrestrial world into nine areas: Africa, Antarctic, Asia-Temperate, Asia-Tropical, Australasia, Europe, Northern America, Pacific, and Southern America.

Distributions are given as reported in the literature or by consulted specialists. Native or potentially native distributions are recorded and displayed separately from cultivated, adventive, or naturalized distributions. For weedy species this distinction is sometimes obscure, and some widespread taxa may have their entire distributions summarized as a comment. State distributions for some larger countries are provided when these are available, although sometimes these are not itemized for taxa widespread within those countries. However, a distributional report for a taxon in a geographical or political region does not necessarily imply widespread occurrence in that region, but only indicates that a literature citation or other basis exists for that report. When available, more specificity in GRIN-Global distributional reports is given as comments, but the available information may vary greatly from one taxon or region to another. Among regions, the greatest gaps in information exist mainly for tropical regions.

For species with subspecies or varieties in GRIN-Global, the main entry for the species provides the overall distribution, including distributions for any subspecies or varieties not appearing in GRIN-Global. Autonym entries provide distributions of only the typical subspecies or variety which occupies all or only a portion of the total distribution for the species.



CIMMYT Germplasm Policy (excerpts)

CIMMYT holds and manages its germplasm as an international public good and is committed to its widespread and facilitated diffusion and use to achieve the maximum possible access, scale, scope of impact, and sharing of benefits for the poor, especially maize and wheat farmers and consumers in developing countries. To safeguard its international public goods character, and by legal obligation with FAO and the Governing Body of the International Treaty of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGRFA), CIMMYT germplasm for use in food and agriculture is transferred using the Standard Materials Transfer Agreement (SMTA) of the ITPGRFA or equivalent Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) in the case of species that are not listed in the Annex 1 of the ITPGRFA.

Distributions to fulfill requests for repatriation of subsamples of germplasm collections to a country or community of origin, especially following natural or man-made catastrophes, are considered a high priority.

The CIMMYT germplasm research for development focus is on (i) conservation and the effective use of genetic diversity and (ii) the further development and deployment of CIMMYT germplasm for the benefit of improved and more sustainable food and nutrition security, poverty reduction, and environmental sustainability.

CIMMYT strives to make CIMMYT held germplasm, as well as the data and other outputs resulting from its germplasm research and development activities, openly available and accessible for research, breeding and training for food and agriculture, in accordance with the ITPGRFA, the CGIAR Intellectual Assets Principles, the CGIAR Open Access and Data Management Policy and CIMMYT's Intellectual Assets Policy. Germplasm availability is made public through the web, field days etc. and access is free of charge or at minimal cost. CIMMYT may apply additional conditions to the transfer of germplasm under development from its breeding and research programs in support of accelerated use, data sharing, and impact assessment.

CIMMYT acquires and distributes all seed samples in accordance with relevant international and national regulations, such as phytosanitary/quarantine laws, ITPGRFA or CBD, and national laws for genetic resources access, transgenic status, and other considerations. Germplasm imported, exported, or acquired from quarantined regions within the same country must pass through the applicable quarantine processes implemented by an accredited CIMMYT Seed Health Unit or the importing or exporting countries' dedicated authorities, as well as meeting all necessary regulatory requirements, before acceptance and use by CIMMYT for conservation, breeding, research, and/or dissemination to third parties.

CIMMYT makes no warranties, express or implied, regarding the quality, viability or purity (genetic or mechanical), safety of and/or use of CIMMYT-held germplasm including any warranty of merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose, including without limitation, production, breeding, crossing, testing, commercialization, or non-infringement of third-party intellectual property.